Avoiding dogmatism through realizing that human-beings are limited beings

[Based on my previous article: Nature and Dogma – The Objective Good and its limited subjective perception (2020)] “Yet the great bird rises from the vast ocean and is borne on the great mass of air, the only support capable of carrying its immensity and soaring at an amazing height. A cicada has just hatchedContinue reading “Avoiding dogmatism through realizing that human-beings are limited beings”

Emuna as a form of experiencing God

“Those who become new creatures in Christ Jesus will bring forth the fruits of the Spirit, ‘love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance.’ (Galatians 5:22, 23). They will no longer fashion themselves according to the former lusts, but by the faith of the Son of God they will follow in His steps, reflectContinue reading “Emuna as a form of experiencing God”

Finding God in a pluralist approach

“A person may not be able to tell the exact time or place, or trace all the chain of circumstances in the process of conversion; but this does not prove him to be unconverted. […] Like the wind, which is invisible, yet the effects of which are plainly seen and felt, is the Spirit ofContinue reading “Finding God in a pluralist approach”

Blessed are the pure hearts: Overcoming frontiers without rejecting God

Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say allContinue reading “Blessed are the pure hearts: Overcoming frontiers without rejecting God”

Plato’s absence in the Phaedo

When Echecrates asked Phaedo who was present in the last hours of Socrates’ life, listening to his final words, Phaedo gives the following account: Phaedo: Of native Athenians there was this Apollodorus, and Critobulus and his father, and Hermogenes and Epiganes and Aeschines and Antisthenes; and Ctesippus the Paeanian was there too, and Menexenus andContinue reading “Plato’s absence in the Phaedo”

A heaven for the privileged, for the poor or for everyone?

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful: for they shallContinue reading “A heaven for the privileged, for the poor or for everyone?”

Quote from my book

Finally, I think that God is universal. This means, it does not matter whether I read the Bible, the Quran, the Torah, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Pali-Canon, or the Daodejing, I can realize Him through all of these religious scriptures in a certain way. Though the question whether I certainly realize Him lies in whether IContinue reading “Quote from my book”

[朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的宗教情况] 朝鲜宗教的概括(二):基督教

作者:Timo Schmitz (德国) 在朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的基督教徒很少。Alton和Chidley建议朝鲜有超过40万基督徒,但我认为这个估计太高了。我认为根据我自己的评估,20,000 名基督徒是一个现实的数字,最多 50,000 人。原因之一是基督教几乎只存在于平壤市。平壤市以外没有基督教社区,各省也没有人对基督教有知识。一些朝鲜归国者在国外接受了基督教。所以,在边境地区可能生活着一些非法基督徒,但只是极少数。我想几百个信徒是现实的。似乎所有基督徒都在国外受洗,地下教会并不存在。(Seliger, 2013年) 关于有多少基督徒被关押在朝鲜的流传数字并不可靠,因为不清楚这些估计值是如何计算的。虽然基督徒是朝鲜受迫害最严重的宗教团体,该国境内仍有合法建立的基督教机构。 朝鲜基督教联盟代表朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的基督新教徒。朝鲜有長老宗和循道宗的信徒。其实金日成家中的先人信了長老宗。在1946年成立了,这个组织在 1960 年消失,可是1974 年突然在一次被建立了。(Daily NK, 2015年) 其实满载1974年,朝鲜进行了改革,宗教活动合法化,并被组织成伞式组织。朝鲜基督教联盟经营两个教堂。教区居民是真正的基督徒,并积极实践他们的信仰。(Schmitz, 2021年) 因此,他们不被允许成为执朝鲜劳动党的成员,而是经常在社会民主党中组织起来。已经与韩国代表团举行联合会议,一起举行礼拜和唱赞美诗。(Daily NK, 2017年) 许多新教信徒似乎来自精英阶层,而普通的朝鲜人不知道他们的活动。一个指标是该组织及其教会在朝鲜的普通出版物中几乎没有提及。此外,政党控制成员资格和教堂服务出席率。(Tan, 2015年) 朝鲜严格禁止在未经国家同意的情况下建立宗教社区和任何形式的传教活动。(Schmitz, 2021年) 朝鲜基督教联盟官方的目标包括保护基督徒的权利和自由,与社会团体和政党交往,参与国家繁荣发展,为国家统一服务,为世界和平与正义工作,以及为家庭教会培训领袖。(韩国民族文化百科字典, 2009年) Seliger (2013年)假设朝鲜本身在边境城镇建立家庭教会,以便控制宗教活动。所以政府和执政党的好处也应该在敬拜中宣扬。我认为通过这种方式应该确保对政府的忠诚,同时朝鲜尝试对宗教进行小范围的开放。因此,朝鲜基督教联盟不是非政治性的,并支持政府的官方路线。金日成说了宗教是一种反动的、不科学的世界观。 所以官方的国家意识形态与基督教教义是不相容的。(韩国民族文化百科字典, 2009年) 但是政府经常在公开场合强调,基督徒为祖国做了很多事情。(也看Seliger, 2013年) 2018年4月27日,朝韩两国新教代表人发表了《板门店宣言》。(基督教日报, 2018年) 朝鲜基督教联盟的平壤神学学校从1972年到1995年教了長老宗。1995年南朝鲜的基督教大韩监理会(循道宗)帮助神学校的运作。所以我认为这个学校现在为循道宗顺应。 朝鲜天主教协会代表朝鲜的基督教天主教的信徒。它在1988年成立了。1980年代前天主教在朝鲜不合法了。国内的天主教不是罗马化而朝鲜化的。朝鲜不是唯一的非罗马教会,世界上还有其他国家拥有自己的各种天主教。2018年,金正恩邀请天主教教皇进行正式访问。(BBC, 2018年) 朝鲜约有3,000名天主教徒和一座天主教堂。(YNA, 2018年) 周末,大约有 70 至 80 名天主教徒聚集在教堂,在重大节日期间,会众有大约 200 名信徒参加教堂礼拜。(ibid.) 参加教堂的人是真正的信徒,没有演员。1949年在朝鲜最后一位罗马化主教洪龙浩消失了。直到今天,他的命运仍然未知。 只有那些具有罗马天主教背景的家庭才被允许重新加入宗教,并且只有这些家庭的后裔才能成为天主教徒。 不接纳新成员。朝鲜政府还派了几名学生去罗马学习天主教。这可能是 2010 年代放松政策和改革的一部分。 平壤贞柏寺院是朝鲜民主主义人民共和国唯一的俄罗斯东正教教堂。它由朝鲜正教委员会运营。每周六和周日定期举行服务。 尽管有四名朝鲜人被派往莫斯科学习东正教神学,朝鲜当地没有东正教信徒。参加教堂礼拜的人大多是居住在平壤的俄罗斯人。德国媒体称,这四名学生在被选中受洗之前曾为朝鲜情报部门工作。据报道,朝鲜正教委员会会长一开始很难接受基督教,但他别无选择。 自 2019Continue reading “[朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的宗教情况] 朝鲜宗教的概括(二):基督教”

Socrates: Serving the community

“Part of the fascination of Plato’s Apology consists in the fact that it presents a man who takes extraordinary steps throughout his life to be of the greatest possible value to his community but whose efforts, far from earning him the gratitude and honour he thinks he deserves, lead to his condemnation and death atContinue reading “Socrates: Serving the community”

Which opinions should we take into consideration?

“Socrates: But, my dear Crito, why do we care so much for what most people think? For the most reasonable men, whose opinion is more worth considering, will think that things were done as they really will be done. […] By taking up first what you say about opinions and asking whether we were rightContinue reading “Which opinions should we take into consideration?”