What is African philosophy and what are the main streams of contemporary African philosophy? Although Africa has a very long and rich philosophical tradition, a modern philosophical approach focussing on Africa only started in the 20th century. However, it soon emancipated itself and also tried to go back to its pre-colonial roots on the one side, but doesn’t deny Western methodology on the other side. As a result, students of philosophy in Africa have an important advantage which students in the West don’t have. DOWNLOAD THE ARTICLE BELOW AND READ MORE!
According to Russell and Frege, when we talk of a singular term, we already presume its existence – or possible existence – as otherwise we would not talk of the term as such, and therefore as we already stated its existence, we cannot regard existence as another individual propery initiated to it. Meinong however comes to the point that not everything we express in language and what we state what is, must really exist.
Though we might presume the existence of a singular entity, how can we justify the classification to a general term? How do we know that the general classification is really existent and that the singular term is part of it? Even though this paper cannot give a full answer of it, it tries to ungable the knot of the difficult term existence and follows Rosefeldt’s suggestion, which then helps us to classify singular terms with their respective general terms.
To understand the function of class logic, it is important to take a further look on singular terms, especially their identity. What makes an object an object as such, so how can it be identified? Thus, how can an object be differentiated between another object? In a wider sense, things can have a qualitative identity, but what is really interesting for a logician is the numerical identity which helps us to identify whether object A and B are the same objects or not. Both, qualitative identity and numerical identity have a lot of practical implications and understanding the idea of identity on a single term can help in a lot of daily situations.
Frege treated sentences like mathematics and suggested functional logic. Even further, he divided sentences into values and complex expressions. The complex expression contains an argument and the amount of all values that can be attributed to the argument leading to a true sentence is a class. In this paper, I want to explain Frege’s idea and explain what he means exatly when he refers a value to an argument.
In chapter 4, Aristotle again talks about the Physikoi, this time about Anaxagoras and shows why his thesis cannot be correct according to his point of view. It is also in this chapter that Aristotle for the first time states which part of the many (the limited or unlimited) he prefers.
In the first chapter of Aristotle’s Physics, he suggests the deductive method to find the first cause, which seemingly is an inductive term. This leads to the question why Ariostotle uses an inductive term when he suggests us to do deduction reasoning. The contradiction which seemingly appears is no contradiction at all, however.
In this paper, I want to give a very quick introduction in my philosphy – the New Constructivist Communism, which was publisehd in my series “Individualism between Moral and Virtues, Government and Religion” from 2015 to 2016. In addition, several new ideas and minor corrections were proposed in 2017.
In Chapter 3, Aristotle tries to show why the argument of a unity in continuity, unity in identity and unity in indivisibility cannot be uphold and therefore, a oneness is ruled out. Actually, he already ruled out the option of a oneness in Chapter 2, but in Chapter 3 he strengthens his arguments through a logical discourse on the three unities. It turns out, that there is at least always a “twoness” and thus ‘a many’.
In Chapter 2 of Book 1 on the Physics, Aristotle rises the question whether the first cause is one principle or goes back to many principles. As a result, he wants to show why it cannot be one principle and therefore has to be more than principle.
Chapter One of Book One of Aristotle’s Physics arises the concern of the first cause or first element. He introduces the method to find it and the demand on scientific philosophy.