Timo Schmitz: “How Chinese politeness is misunderstood in the West” (2016) [PDF]

Chinese people are very polite and show a lot of gratitude and respect. However, many Westerners do not understand their politeness and act toward them in a bad manner in return. The article shall help to overcome this communication barrier. Feel free to download!

DOWNLOAD HERE: Timo Schmitz: “How Chinese politeness is misunderstood in the West” (2016)

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Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 8: Religious matters and problems throughout the history” (2015) [PDF]

Part 8 reflects the history mainly on a perspective of religious matters. Who stood in competition with whom? Which dynasty supported which religion? The article starts with the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet in the 640s, describes the relation between Buddhism and Bön at that time, continues with describing the founding of the new transmission schools and the resulting problems throughout the history until the 1940s.

 

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Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 8” (PDF)

Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 7: The Battle of Qamdo and the Sino-Indian War”

In my last article I took a look on the situation of Tibet and Qinghai between 1912 and 1959. In this article, I want to cover the situation of the Khampas in Sichuan between 1930 and 1959, as well as the Sino-Indian War over Ladakh and Tawang in 1962. At the same time, the conflict is put into an international context (the relations between India and the Soviet Union and the relations between China and the USA in the 1970s).

An Overview of Tibetan History Part 7:  The Battle of Qamdo and the Sino-Indian War

Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 6: Tibet in Republican China, foreign occupation and liberation by the Chinese army in the 1950s” (2015) [PDF]

In 1912, the Chinese Qing dynasty collapsed. In the last years of the Qing dynasty, Tibet had to deal with two invasions conducted by the British who occupied the province for 2 years, until they offered China to rebuy the province. After Yuan Shikai’s death, Tibet as well as all other Chinese provinces had to struggle with the civil war-like conditions. The Dalai Lama was probably supported by Britain to try to segregate the area, while the Penchen Lama allied with China. After the communists won the civil war, Mao Zedong wanted to reintegrate the provinces in a central government, and since Tibet continously belonged to China, he reintegrated Tibet into China in 1950 granting local leaders autonomy. Read and download the article below for further information.

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An Overview of Tibetan History Part 6: Tibet in Republican China, foreign occupation and liberation by the Chinese army in the 1950s

Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 5: Tibet in the Chinese Qing Dynasty” (2015) [PDF]

In 1721, Tibet joined China, since the Tibetan government wished to be under Chinese protection to be safe from invasions, such as the Dzungars which were defeated in 1720. But the Tibetan government also joined Tibet to consolidate its reign, since Tibet was splitted a lot and the aristocracy was hostile towards each other. In 1728, Tibet was fully incorporated into China, but the Tibetans were granted autonomy. Download and read the article about Tibet in the Qing Dynasty below.

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An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 5: Tibet in the Chinese Qing Dynasty

Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 4: Khoshut Khanate and the integration into the Chinese Qing Dynasty” (2015) [PDF]

The history of the Khoshut Khanate (1642-1717) ruling Tibet and the Dzungar invasion (1717) with the result that the Tibetans allied with the Chinese and the Chinese Qing army defeated the Dzungars in 1720. To be protected from invasions, the Tibetans joined China voluntarily and in return the Tibetan leader received autonomy.

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An Overview of Tibetan History Part 4: Khoshut Khanate and integration into Chinese Qing Dynasty

Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 3 – New dynasties, new conflicts. Tibet between 1346 and 1642” (2015) [PDF]

In 1346, Changchub Gyaltsen started a revolt against the Mongolians, leading to the establishment of the Phagmodrupa dynasty (1346/54-1642) in Central Tibet. In West Tibet several kingdoms existed, as well as in Kham. Amdo was reigned by the Chinese Ming-Dynasty and later recaptured by the Mongolians. In Central Tibet, there would soon be a split and the Rinpungpa dynasty (1435-1565) and the following Tsangpa dynasty (1565-1642) competed with the Phagmodrupa dynasty.

Download the article below to get a deeper overview.

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An Overview of Tibetan History Part 3

Timo Schmitz: “An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 2 – the Mongolian Conquest and the Sakya Dynasty” (2015) [PDF]

This article deals with the Mongol conquest of Tibet at around 1240, and the incorporation into the Chinese Yuan Dynasty in 1271. This section of Tibetan history is also called “Sakya Dynasty”, since the Sakya Lamas received a special autonomy.

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An Overview of Tibetan History, Part 2: Mongolian Conquest and Sakya Dynasty