When I was very young, I started to collect phrases and words in many different languges and within the years I created a big archive. In this book, I want to open the archive to the public. The work consists of the so called ‘manuscripts’ which are the collected files, and an appendix with ‘Notes’. These notes contain useful information about the languages, grammatical features, explanations to the phrases, etc., making it a general reference work. It is intended for polyglots who want to get a glimpse in different languages through a few examples and want to understand the relations of the languages through these examples. In addition, this book contains a new orthography proposal for Lingao language, which does not a broadly written standard yet. In addition, there is a small introduction on Serbo-Croatian and a Luxembourgish course with 12 lessons, since Luxembourgish is my native language. The book is multilingual and the manuscripts are explained either in English, German, French, Chinese or Russian, so it is mandatory to know these languages, though this work might be useful for someone who is only fluent in English.
The languages that can be found in this book:
Arabic (dialects only)
Jingpo/ Kachin (Myanmar)
Kreyol (St. Lucia)
Tibetan (two Kham dialects)
Zhuang/ Buyi/ Nung
Timo Schmitz: My Archive Of Languages
Published: 10 December 2016
Publishing House: epubli GmbH
Chinese people are very polite and show a lot of gratitude and respect. However, many Westerners do not understand their politeness and act toward them in a bad manner in return. The article shall help to overcome this communication barrier. Feel free to download!
Part 8 reflects the history mainly on a perspective of religious matters. Who stood in competition with whom? Which dynasty supported which religion? The article starts with the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet in the 640s, describes the relation between Buddhism and Bön at that time, continues with describing the founding of the new transmission schools and the resulting problems throughout the history until the 1940s.
In my last article I took a look on the situation of Tibet and Qinghai between 1912 and 1959. In this article, I want to cover the situation of the Khampas in Sichuan between 1930 and 1959, as well as the Sino-Indian War over Ladakh and Tawang in 1962. At the same time, the conflict is put into an international context (the relations between India and the Soviet Union and the relations between China and the USA in the 1970s).
In 1912, the Chinese Qing dynasty collapsed. In the last years of the Qing dynasty, Tibet had to deal with two invasions conducted by the British who occupied the province for 2 years, until they offered China to rebuy the province. After Yuan Shikai’s death, Tibet as well as all other Chinese provinces had to struggle with the civil war-like conditions. The Dalai Lama was probably supported by Britain to try to segregate the area, while the Penchen Lama allied with China. After the communists won the civil war, Mao Zedong wanted to reintegrate the provinces in a central government, and since Tibet continously belonged to China, he reintegrated Tibet into China in 1950 granting local leaders autonomy. Read and download the article below for further information.
In 1721, Tibet joined China, since the Tibetan government wished to be under Chinese protection to be safe from invasions, such as the Dzungars which were defeated in 1720. But the Tibetan government also joined Tibet to consolidate its reign, since Tibet was splitted a lot and the aristocracy was hostile towards each other. In 1728, Tibet was fully incorporated into China, but the Tibetans were granted autonomy. Download and read the article about Tibet in the Qing Dynasty below.
The history of the Khoshut Khanate (1642-1717) ruling Tibet and the Dzungar invasion (1717) with the result that the Tibetans allied with the Chinese and the Chinese Qing army defeated the Dzungars in 1720. To be protected from invasions, the Tibetans joined China voluntarily and in return the Tibetan leader received autonomy.
In 1346, Changchub Gyaltsen started a revolt against the Mongolians, leading to the establishment of the Phagmodrupa dynasty (1346/54-1642) in Central Tibet. In West Tibet several kingdoms existed, as well as in Kham. Amdo was reigned by the Chinese Ming-Dynasty and later recaptured by the Mongolians. In Central Tibet, there would soon be a split and the Rinpungpa dynasty (1435-1565) and the following Tsangpa dynasty (1565-1642) competed with the Phagmodrupa dynasty.
Download the article below to get a deeper overview.
This article deals with the Mongol conquest of Tibet at around 1240, and the incorporation into the Chinese Yuan Dynasty in 1271. This section of Tibetan history is also called “Sakya Dynasty”, since the Sakya Lamas received a special autonomy.