Reflecting about God with our Tibetan friends – Part 3

Last time, I talked of tolerance which is important, if we want to get into a fruitful conversation and an exchange of values with our new Tibetan acquaintances. However, Tibetan is not simply Tibetan, there are different identities, dialect groups, local beliefs, etc. Last time, I focused on Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, today I want to put the ethnicity in the foreground as well as their local identities and beliefs for completeness’ sake. Anyways, not to make things too complicated, I will focus on Tibetans in a more narrow sense, and therefore exclude the so-called Qiangic-speaking Tibetans, which are actually different ethnic groups, speaking a Qiangic language, but which acquired Tibetan Buddhism and even Tibetan customs, as well as the Sogwo Arig which are Tibetan-speaking Qinghai-Mongols. As such, I identified the following groups through Hattaway’s Operation China [see Paul Hattaway: Operation China: Introducing All the Peoples of China. Carlisle: Piquant, 2000]:  (1) Amdo-Tibetans: Hbrogpa [p. 35], Rongba [p. 36], Rongmahbrogpa [p. 37], Rtahu [p. 38]; (2) Golog-Tibetans [p. 159]; (3) Groma [p. 161]; (4) Hdzanggur [p. 195] and Yonzhi [p. 561]; (5) Kham-Tibetan: Eastern [p. 248], Northern [p. 249], Western [p. 250]; (6) Nubra (Muslim Ladakhi) [p. 417]; (7) Sherpa [p. 482]; (8) Other Tibetans: Boyu [p. 510], Central [p. 511], Deqen [p. 512] (called Southern Khampa in later works by Hattaway), Gtsang [p. 513], Jone [p. 514], Nghari [p. 515], Shangri-La/ Zhongdian [p. 516], Shanyan, Zhugqu [p. 517]. Additionally, the Kyerung [p. 260and Purik [p. 437] might be counted as Tibetans. The Puroik [p. 438] which sound close should not be confused as Tibetans; they belong to the Lhoba ethnicity. Thus, Hattaway groups them correctly. Furthermore, there are local Tibetan Muslims known as Kaqê who allegedly have Kashmiri roots, and Pemako Tibetans which evolved out of intermarriage among Khampa, Wü-Zang-Tibetans and the Lhoba people [Timo Schmitz: An Overview of Tibetan History. Berlin: Timo Schmitz, 2019]. Outside of China, we find the Ladakhi, Balti, Dolpo, Denzongpa, and Ngalongpa [ibid.]. Additionally, there are Tebbu and Changpa in China [ibid.], which I could not find in Hattaway’s Operation China.

For reasons of simplification, we can put several groups together. The Ngari, Balti (mostly Pakistan), and Ladakhi (mostly India) form the West Tibetans; also the Nubra and Changpa can be included here, as they both speak Ladakhi dialects. Since I want to focus on Tibetans in China, the Ngari will be of interest for us. The Hbrogpa, Rongba, and Rongmahbrogpa can be classified as Amdo-Tibetan; the Eastern Khampa, Northern Khampa, Southern Khampa, and Western Khampa can be identified as Kham-Tibetans; the Lhasa (Central/ Wü) Tibetans and Xigazê (Zang) Tibetans can be classified as Central Tibetans. The Boyu, Jone, Zhugqu and Tebbu are all native to Gannan in Gansu and therefore could be called Gannan or Gansu Tibetans for simplification, though I prefer the term Gansu Tibetan. The Hdzanggur and Yonzhi are seemingly very close to the Golog or might even be a Golog tribe and therefore will be included to the Golog Tibetans. The Groma, Kyerung and Sherpa will be counted to the Southern Tibetans, which have in common that they either speak a dialect of the Dzongkha-Sikkimese branch, Sherpa-Jirel branch or Kyirong-Kagate branch. Groma belongs to the Dzongkha-Sikkimese branch, Sherpa to the Sherpa-Jirel branch and Kyerung to the Kyirong-Kagate branch [see Schmitz, 2021]. So my classification is done as following: Amdo-Tibetans, Kham-Tibetans, Central Tibetans, Western Tibetans, Gansu Tibetans, Golog Tibetans, Shanyan Tibetans, and Southern Tibetans. The Kaqê and Pemako Tibetans remain unclassified, I am not sure yet whether they are distinct groups or might be subsumed under one of the previously mentioned.

The Amdo-Tibetans are mainly living in Qinghai Province, but some can also be found in Sichuan and Gansu. The Hbrogpa (which means “nomads” or “herder”) mainly live in Eastern Qinghai, but are also present in Southwestern Gansu and Northwestern Sichuan [Hattaway, 2000: 35]. The majority are Tibetan Buddhists or Bön adherents, but there are approximately five Christian churches which still exist today, and there might be up to 100,000 believers near Hezuo in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu according to overly optimistic records, but Hattaway gives the number of Hbrogpa Christians with 100; it is reported that in 1986, anti-Christian clashes appeared in Tibetan communities in Gansu, but as “the sick and dying were healed”, over hundred Amdo Tibetans converted to Christianity [ibid.]. The Rongba (which means “villager” or “farmer”) live mostly in the Hualong Hui Autonomus County and Xunhua Salar Autonomous County, both in Haidong City in Qinghai [Hattaway, 2000: 36]. Most people are Tibetan Buddhists or Bön adherents, but there are at about ten Christians. We can see that the Rongba live in an ethnic heterogenous area. Many people in their area are Hui-Chinese or Salar and thus Muslims, but there are also Mongours (most of them are fellow Buddhists), as well as a few Mongols and Dongxiang (a Muslim Mongolic ethnicity). The Rongmahbrogpa (which is a combination of the words Rongba and Brogpa) live south of Xining in Qinghai Province along the Gansu border [cp. Hattaway, 2000: 37]. Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai is mainly inhabited by Tibetans and Mongols. The dominant religions are Buddhism and Bön, but one can also find a Muslim minority in the region. As with other Amdo Tibetan groups, most people practice Tibetan Buddhism or Bön; there at about 20 Christians [ibid.]. Finally, there are the Rtahu which mostly live in Sichuan’s Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture [Hattaway, 2000: 38]. The Rtahu are connecting the Amdo with the Khampa, as they are linguistically rather Amdo Tibetans, but see themselves culturally more driven to the Kham Tibetans [cp. ibid.]. The Rtahu are Tibetan Buddhists, and most people never heard of the Christian doctrines [ibid.]. To put it in a nutshell, the Amdo Tibetans in Northeastern Qinghai are mainly Buddhists and Bön adherents, and live among different Muslim ethnicities, including Turkic, Mongolic and Chinese. There might be a few Christian believers in Gansu, but the Amdo-Tibetans in Qinghai and Sichuan mostly never heard of the gospel. Therefore, I personally think that if we are in a conversation with them, we have to be very kind and understanding, especially if they cannot understand our norms, values and behaviors, as they might seem very foreign to them; on the other hand, Buddhism also shares the universal ethical principles and compassion plays a key role in daily life.

The Kham-Tibetans will all be classified together here. They mostly live in Eastern parts of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Western parts of Sichuan as well as Southern Qinghai. Hattaway thinks that “The Khampa have a long history of conflict with the Chinese, who annexed most of Kham Province to Sichuan in 1720. […] Military clashes between the two groups occurred in 1918, 1928, and 1932” [Hattaway, 2000: 248]. However, a Kham Province as such never existed, and the small kingdoms in Western Sichuan remained autonomous even after 1720, when they joined Qing-China. Most Kham are adherents of Tibetan Buddhism or Bön. Nonetheless, there is a Christian minority. However, they were victims of violence several times, as Hattaway reports. “The Catholic mission at Batang Township was demolished in 1873 and 1905 – after two priests had been killed and converts who would not deny their faith were shot” [ibid.]. There are at about 200 Kham Catholics around Kangding, Batang and Yajiang. Anyways, Protestantism is hardly present. Hattaway gives the number of Eastern Khampa Christians with 400. This is more than all the Amdo together, if we take Hattaway’s estimation that there are only 100 Hbrogpa Christians. Northern Kham is spoken in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai; there are no known Christians among the Northern Khampa and they remain completely untouched. The Western Kham live from Ngari Prefecture to Nagqu Prefecture where the latter tips Qinghai [see map in Hattaway, 2000: 250]. Polyandry is still common in some places, many wear long-sleeved coats due to the hard weather conditions [ibid.]. They “rely on demons, ghosts, and the spirits of disembodied deities to guide their decisions” [ibid.]. Given this description, it seems that the Western Khampa preserved many of the traditional religious elements from Bön, and live a more conservative form of religion, highly relying on cosmology within their decisions. There are no known Christians among them. (Interestingly, they live in the same area as the Changpa, but I doubt that Hattaway means the Changpa when he talks of Northern Khampa, as the Changpa speak a Ladakhi dialect which is often called Qangtang language, and not a Kham dialect.) The Deqen Tibetans, also known as Southern Khampa, mainly live in Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, but there are also nine villages in the northernmost tip of Myanmar [Hattaway, 2000: 512]. (Linguistically, I also count them as speaking a Southern variety of Kham, see Timo Schmitz: My Archive of Languages (2021 Edition). Berlin, epubli, 2021.) Like the other Kham Tibetan peoples, the Southern Khampa are professing Tibetan Buddhism. Nonetheless, “this group also has the largest number of professing Christians among any Tibetan group in the world” [ibid.]. Hattaway gives the number with 7,500 believers. Like with the other groups, the Christians used to receive a lot of violence in the founding phase: “In 1905 Tibetan lamas killed all of the French missionaries and the head of Father Dubernard was hung on the monastery gate” [ibid.]. Several Christians were shot [ibid.]. The Shangri-La Tibetans live in Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, together with the Southern Khampa (Dêqên Tibetan); however, they are quite distinct from the latter [Hattaway, 2000: 516]. They seem to speak a Chinese-influenced Kham dialect (the Khampa speak Eastern Tibetan dialects, though Hattaway counts them to Northern Tibetan). Most Shangri-La Tibetans are followers of Buddhism, but there are also at about 2,000 Christians. The Tibetans in Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture live in an area with a large ethnic diversity, as Dêqên is also home to the Han-Chinese, Lisu, Naxi, Bai, Yi, and Pumi. To put it in a nutshell, we see a wide variety of beliefs among the Khampa: some still believe in ghosts and demons, others prefer modern Tibetan Buddhism. Concerning Christianity, some areas remain untouched, while another has the highest Christian rate among Tibetans. Therefore, we should strongly differentiate when we get in touch with Khampa, and we should not generalize them. Some might live in tourist regions and are well aware of the different peoples of the world, others are living very remotely under very harsh environmental conditions.

The Central Tibetans are the very group which most people actually have in mind, when they think of “Tibetans” in general. Anyways, “Although Tibetans strongly maintain they are one people and are opposed to any attempts to classify them as separate groups, the Tibetan nationality clearly divides into numerous linguistic components” [Hattaway, 2000: 511]. Despite that, there are intriguing differences between the Lhasa Tibetans (Wü) and Xigazê Tibetans (Zang), which maintained a long hostility towards each other [Schmitz, 2019]. Like the Amdowa and Khampa, Central Tibetans mainly believe in Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, while only a very tiny minority is Christian. The Lhasa branch only has an estimated 50 adherents [Hattaway, 2000: 511], the Xigazê branch inherits around 20 [Hattaway, 2000: 513]. Missionary work in Xigazê goes back to the 17th century, but a revolt in 1635 abruptly ended the mission [ibid.]. Aditionally, one can find the Kaqê in the Tibet Autonomous Region who are Tibetan-speaking Muslims. Islam became firmly established in Tibet in the 17th century, when traders from Kashmir traveled to Tibet and married Tibetan women who converted to Islam. There are said to be mosques in Lhasa, Xigazê and Qamdo, though I only know surely of the Grand Mosque in Lhasa which was built in 1716 and which is kept in the Tibetan style [Timo Schmitz: Faszinierende Orte im Reich der Mitte, Teil 30: Die Große Moschee von Lhasa (31. Januar 2019). In: Timo Schmitz: Ausgewählte Artikel in deutscher Sprache, 2019-2020. Berlin: epubli, 2021].

The Western Tibetans can mainly be found in China in the Ngari Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region. As Hattaway describes: “Almost all Nghari Tibetans are nomads, struggling to survive in the bleak conditions” [Hattaway, 2000: 515]. Like the other Tibetan groups, the Ngari Tibetans believe in Tibetan Buddhism and Bön religion, but there are no known Christians, so the area remains unreached. The Nubra in Hotan Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region are Muslim Ladakhis who follow Sunni Islam [Hattaway, 2000: 417]. The Ladakhi are mainly living in India’s Ladakh and are ethnically strongly tied to the Ngari Tibetans; however, as far as I know, their language is more conservatively and also letter combinations which muted or emerged into new sounds are still pronounced in the old way, which is why I call them “Classical Western Tibetans”, together with the Balti which mainly live in Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. There are no known Christians among the Nubra [ibid.]. The Purik living in Gar County (Ngari Prefecture, TAR) speak a hybrid language of Ladakhi and Balti [Hattaway, 2000: 437]. They are Muslims, most probably Shiites, and there are no known Christians. The Changpa – which means “Northerners” –  live in Qangtang as nomads and mostly profess Tibetan Buddhism. They speak a Ladakhi dialect which is sometimes called Qangtang language or Byangskat (meaning Chang language/ speech) in Western literature. To put it in a nutshell, we can say that Western Tibetans are mainly Buddhists, Bön adherents or Muslims, but when it goes to Christianity, they remain unreached in China.

Finally, there are other Tibetan groups, such as (1) the Boyu in Boyu village (Zhugqu County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu); (2) the Jone in Jonê and Lintan counties (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu); (3) the Zhugqu Tibetans in Zhugqu County (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu); and (4) Tebbu in Têwo County (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) which I will classify here as Gansu Tibetans for simplification. The Boyu are very distinct from other Tibetan groups and their language might be of Qiangic origin. They venerate the goddess of flowers Lianzhi to which they make offerings [Hattaway, 2000: 510]. It seems that they have their own religion and there are no known Christians. Hattaway lists them under “Tibetan, Boyu” which is why I picked them up here, but it seems to me that they are rather ethnically Qiangic, and thus not Tibetan in the narrow sense. The Jone are hardly known: They speak their own language and have an own ethnic identity [Hattaway, 2000: 514]. The majority are Tibetan Buddhists, but there is a small Christian minority, which makes up 1 %, but 23 % were evangelized but did not become Christian [cp. ibid.]. The Zhugqu Tibetans are the easternmost Tibetan people, being closely tied to the Khampa. Anyways, they have their own ethnolinguistic identity, and as such speak an own language [Hattaway, 2000: 517]. Like Amdo Tibetan and Jonê Tibetan, Zhugqu-Tibetan most likely belongs to the Northern Tibetan dialects. Despite being Buddhists and Bön adherents, the Zhugqu might have their own form of polytheism, and there are no known Christians [cp. ibid.]. Finally, there are the Tebbu who live in Têwo County, according to Hattaway they are native to “one of the most dramatically remote regions of China” [Paul Hattaway: Peoples of the Buddhist World: A Christian Prayer Diary. Carlisle: Piquant, 2004, p. 296]. Their language still seems unclassified and they might belong to the Qiangic-speaking Tibetans, such as the Boyu. Most Tebbu are Tibetan Buddhists, 4 % have been evangelized, but there are no known Christians [ibid.]. To put it in a nutshell, we can say that the Gansu Tibetans live in a very ethnically pluralist region, as one can find the Han, Hui, Mongols, Mongours, Dongxiang, and Salar in the region. Gannan is famous for the Labrang monastery in Xiahe County which belongs to the Gelug school.

The Hdzanggur are a tiny remote group living in southeastern Qinghai. Hattaway reports: “The Hdzanggur have a reputation for being robbers and murderers. They are heavily armed and practically independent from Chinese rule. […] Few are able to read and write either Tibetan or Chinese” [Hattaway, 2000: 195]. They live around Radja monastery and follow Tibetan Buddhism. Anyways, they also have their own local mountain deities. Concerning Christianity, the Hdzanggur are completely unreached [ibid.]. Sometimes, they are counted together with the Golog Tibetans, and Hdzanggur might be a Golog dialect, both speaking Northern Tibetan dialects, such as the Amdo and Gansu Tibetans. The Golog live in southeastern Qinghai in local tribes, known as rebellious and warriors [Hattaway, 2000: 159]. Due to its remoteness, several Jonang monasteries survived in this area, while they were persecuted by the Gelug in the past and thought to be extinct until the 20th century. Indeed, the area is very remote and has a mythical charm, yet I do not know whether the barbarous reputation of the people really fits into reality. What is known is that the area – due to its remoteness – served as a place of refuge for people who fell in disfavor and were wanted in Imperial times. This might also explain the tribes’ notorious reputation. There are many dialects among the Golog and it is perceived to be unintelligible with other varieties of Tibetan. There are only a few Christians, Hattaway counts 10 [ibid.].

The Shanyan Tibetans have a special role within this classification. They live among the Kham Tibetans, but according to their own reports have their roots in nowadays Ngari Prefecture [Hattaway, 2004: 337]. Indeed, they are very distinct from the surrounding Khampa and can be grouped in 18 clans (geba) [ibid.]. The Shanyan live in Baiyü County in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan and all of them are Tibetan Buddhists. There are no known Christians [ibid.].

Finally, I want to talk of the Southern Tibetan peoples living in China. The Groma (also called Chomo) live in Yadong County in Xigazê and speak a Southern Tibetan language. “Little is known about the Groma. Most anthropological sources do not mention them” [Hattaway, 2000: 161]. Most Groma are Tibetan Buddhists; though according to Hattaway 13% of the population has been evangelized, seemingly none of them became Christian, at least no Christians are known [see ibid.]. One reason might be local persecution by fellows, as Hattaway described that such a persecution by local shamans took place [see ibid.]. The Kyerung are ethnic Tibetans speaking their own language who live in southern Tibet, south of Gyirong near the border to Nepal. A man can marry two sister, or several women share the same man [Hattaway, 2000: 260]. The Kyerung are devout Tibetan Buddhists; there are no known Christians. The Sherpa are officially included under the Tibetan nationality, but the Chinese government is recently investigating whether they should be considered as an own ethnic nationality. Unlike most Tibetan groups which do not burry their dead bodies, the Sherpa do burry the corpses. After a loved one died, the Gyawa festival takes place for 49 days [Hattaway, 2000: 482]. Most Sherpa are Tibetan Buddhists, but shamanism is also widespread. Though there are a few Sherpa Christians in Nepal, there are no known in China [ibid.]. They live mainly in Dinggye, Tingri and Zhangmu Counties in Xigazê Prefecture near Qomolongma, colloquially known as “Mount Everest” [cp. ibid.]. 

In the very end, I want to mention some Tibetan ethnic groups which were not introduced here, not to make things more complicated. The Xiangcheng [Hattaway, 2000: 547] live in and around Xiangcheng Township in Garzê (Sichuan) and are possibly Qiangic, so I count them to the Qiangic-speaking Tibetans. The Baima [Hattaway, 2000: 63] in Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, also called Pingwu Tibetans, are too distinct from the Tibetans to be included here, they remain unclassified. Concerning the Walang in China, I simply do not have enough information to classify them.

Taken this as ground, we can finally come to conclusions. At first, we can differentiate the different groups by region. The Western Tibetans, Central Tibetans and partly the Kham people live in the TAR, which is commonly known as “Western Tibet”, while the Amdo, Gansu Tibetans, and other Kham groups live in Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan and Yunnan in Tibetan territories commonly referred to as East Tibet. Both, West and East Tibet are situated in China, though the westernmost parts are situated in the Kashmir region in India and Pakistan. Sikkim (India), Bhutan, Dolpo and Mustang (Nepal), as well as the Indian-controlled Tawang area are commonly called South Tibet. The three areas are very distinct. In West Tibet, most inhabitants are Tibetan Buddhists or Bön adherents, but there is a tiny Muslim minority among them, such as the Balti in Pakistan, and the Purik, Nubra and Kaqê in China. From a Christian perspective, these people are mostly unreached and only few Central Tibetans converted to Christianity. East Tibet can be classified in a Northern, Eastern and Southern part. The Northern part – which are the Tibetan territories in Gansu and Qinghai – are very diverse, though the large majority are Amdo Tibetans. The Gansu Tibetans are quite distinct, but sometimes also counted to the Amdo Tibetans. Anyways, I rather see them as an own group. While there are a few Amdo Tibetans which converted to Christianity, the Gansu and Golog Tibetans remain mostly unreached. The Eastern part is mainly inhabited by Kham Tibetans as well as different Qiangic groups. Except the Baima and Qiang (the latter ones are classified as an own ethnic nationality), they mostly follow Tibetan Buddhism. There had been a few Christian converts, but they were persecuted by local Tibetans in anti-Christian uprisings. In contrast, in the Southern part of East Tibet in Yunnan, we find the largest ethnic Tibetan group following Christianity. Tibetans in South Tibet are mainly practicing Tibetan Buddhism, some – such as the inhabitants in Sikkim and Nepal – live in a Hindu environment. Additionally, there is a Hindu minority present in Bhutan; however, the Tibetans themselves are usually not Hindus. To put it in a nutshell, there are different Tibetan identities. The most common are among the Amdo Tibetan and Kham Tibetan as Tibetan groups who had their own kingdoms in the past and always shared a border with China; the Central Tibetans which we usually stereotype as the common “Tibetans”, but who are very well aware of their heritage of an Ancient Empire; and the Western Tibetans as well as Qiangic tribes which have their completely own ethnic identities. Additionally, Tibetan Muslims and Buddhists usually have an identity of their own, such as the Kaqê, Balti, Purik and Nubra. Thus, it is most likely that the Tibetan Muslims in China are more commonly grouped to the Hui than to the Tibetans. Note that the tensions between Buddhism and Islam also played an important role during the Golog Conflict between the Ma Clique and the Golog tribes from 1917 to 1949, the Muslim conflict in Gansu from 1927 to 1930 in which the Ma Clique and Fengtian Clique stood against the Tibetan tusi of Jonê and the Labrang Monastery, the Kham-Tibet dispute from 1930 to 1932, the Qinghai-Tibet War in 1932, and the anti-Muslim Lhasa Uprising in 2008. Even the years before 2008, “there have been dozens of clashes between Tibetans and Muslims in Sichuan, Gansu and Qinghai provinces, as well as in the Tibet Autonomous Region” [Barbara Demick: Tibetan-Muslim tensions roil China. Los Angeles Times, 23 June 2008., retrieved on 2 January 2023]. Aditionally, there have been at least five anti-Christian uprisings by Tibetan Buddhists between 1873 and 1905 in Sichuan and Yunnan. (French missionary Souillé was even tortured for several days before he was killed). Thirty years ago, Christian missionary activity in Tibetan territories officially continued. Robert Barnett pointed out in 1992: “Tibet has always held a great attraction for Christian missionaries, who were frustrated for 200 years by its refusal to admit them. The open door policy of the last ten years allowed the missionaries who worked on the Sino-Tibetan borders 50 years ago to resume their activities in Eastern Tibet, usually with official consent.” [Robbie Barnett: Saving Tibet from Satan’s Grip: Present-day Missionary Activity in Tibet. Lungta 11, 1998, pp. 36-41]. Anyways, there are almost no Christian Tibetans except in Yunnan’s Dêqên.

Food for thought: What ought to be done to make religious tolerance among the different Tibetan groups grow? Why do you think are there so many clashes among them? Think also on how to create a better understanding of the Tibetan ethnicity in the West and de-masking the myths of a peaceful theocratic society? How can this heterogeneity become more visible? Which factors are creating the wrong image about Tibet which many have in their minds? Since Buddhism is a religion of peace and focusing on compassion, how is it possible that peaceful coexistence failed over the centuries? Finally, how can we keep the memory of the martyred missionaries alive and make awareness for their suffering and their strong faith grow, as many in the West have forgotten the fate of these people nowadays?

Timo Schmitz, 7 January 2023 – The headtitle was changed on 9 January 2023


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