From a nowadays viewpoint in history, the Russian Federation quickly gained control over the Chechen territory in the Second Chechen War while the separatist forces had to go into hiding. As result the Russians established a provisional government very quickly which turned into the Chechen Republic and thus they won the war. These facts are maybe known today, but they weren’t evident from the beginning. When the separatists were forced into hiding, it didn’t equal the victory of the Russians. The Chechen separatists were preparing a new independence phase and started their counter-strike in 2001. Most civilians supported the Ichkerian Republic and it took 2 years and bloody massacres and other human-right violations by the Russian forces to get control over the rebel strongholds in the Groznensky district, Achkhoy-Martan district, Vedenskiy district and Shatoy district, while the capital was provisonally set to Gudermes, as Grozny was not safe enough. However, by 2002 the Russian authorities managed to seize complete control, and although they already controlled all strategic routes and all borders already in mid-2000, the separatist infrastructure remained intact until 2003.
On 23 February 1944, Stalin started to deport the whole Chechen and Ingush nation to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan within 2 weeks. Although they lived 13 years in exile, they did not accept assimilation and kept their traditions and values, aad when they returned they continued to live like before. However, the Vaynakh deportation is probably the darkest chapter of contemporary history of Chechnya and Ingushetia, as well as one of the most inhuman acts under Stalinism, and thus an important theme for literature. In this article, I analyse three poems and the way they deal with the deportation.
Musa Akhmadov is one of the best received Chechen authors in recent times. His 1985 story “Don’t Destroy the Anthill” is well known for its natural symbols which are typical of Musa Akhmadov’s writing. This paper tries to analyse the story under the aspect of environment and the symbolism of the anthill.
During history, several forms of religion evolved. From animistic beliefs to shamanism to canonical religions. All these forms of religion are to be seen equal, though their evolutional stage shows that their has been a development from one stage to another. This paper shows a few characteristics on how to classify them and shows examples.
In traditional religions, the universe was always described as a living being that encompasses everything. Newtonian Physics however introduced new categories and led to a world-centered undynamic view of the universe, which has an impact on scientifical questions until today. However, this paper does not intend to describe or explain physics, but to build a bridge between science and religion. How did our ancestors see the relation of the cosmos to our world, and what can we learn from them? Even further, this paper intends to show that the idea of God relies on a dynamic living universe, as even in a universe in which everything has a divine plan but no dynmaic, God could have no space to exist.